Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI).

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Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI)

Mang may tinh ngay nay da tro thanh mot thanh phan quan trong trong nganh truyen thong. Tren the gioi, ban dau chi co vai mang may tinh duoc dua vao su dung o cac vien nghien cuu va phuc vu cho quoc phong. Cung voi thoi gian, khoa hoc phat trien, gia may giam, mang may tinh da co mat o khap noi, tu truong hoc, nha may den cac hoc vien..

Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI) - Ban co dau.
Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI) - Ban khong dau.
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Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI).

Dac biet su bung no cua mang thong tin  toan cau  Internet  da dua kha nang su dung mang den tung nguoi dan. Hang ngay ban dao choi tren Internet, luot tren cac trang Web, co bao gio ban tu hoi lam the nao ma con nguoi  co duoc kha nang truy cap  thong tin  manh me va tien loi den nhu vay?

Tra loi day du cau hoi  nay qua la khong don gian vi do la thanh qua cua hang ngan con nguoi, lao dong  trong hang chuc nam, khong the trinh bay goi gon chi trong vai trang viet. Bai bao nay khong di vao chi tiet ma chi xin duoc cung cap mot so kien thuc  co ban nhat ve Internet  va nguyen ly hoat dong  cua no.

Mo hinh tong quat cua mang Internet


Nhu trong hinh 1, ket cau vat ly cua mang Internet gom co mang chinh chua cac server  cung cap dich vu  cho mang, mang nhanh bao gom cac tram lam viec  su dung dich vu  do Internet  cung cap. "Dam may Internet" ham chua vo van mang chinh, mang nhanh va bao phu toan the gioi. De mot he thong  phuc tap nhu vay hoat dong  tron tru va hieu qua thi dieu kien tien quyet la moi may tinh  trong mang, du khac nhau ve kien truc, deu phai giao tiep voi mang theo cung mot quy luat. Do la giao thuc TCP/IP.

Qua trinh truyen du lieu  qua mang Internet

Neu da tung lap trinh, ban han biet rang mot chuong trinh  hoan chinh duoc tao nen tu nhieu module  voi cac chuc nang va nhiem vu khac nhau nhung lai lien ket chat che voi nhau. Qua trinh truyen du lieu  cung nhu vay. De co the truyen qua mang Internet, du lieu  phai duoc xu ly qua nhieu tang. Mot mang intranet theo chuan OSI thuong co bay tang nhung Internet chi co bon tang xu ly du lieu  la:

* Tang application

* Tang transport con goi la tang TCP (Transmission Control  Protocol)

* Tang network con goi la tang IP (Internet Protocol)

* Tang Datalink/Physical

Gia su ban dang o may A va muon gui mot thong diep toi may B. Ban dung mot trinh soan thao  van ban  de soan thu, sau do nhan nut Send. Tinh tu thoi diem do du lieu  duoc xu ly lan luot nhu trong hinh 2.


Dau tien, du lieu  duoc xu ly boi tang application. Tang nay co nhiem vu to chuc du lieu  theo khuon dang va trat tu nhat dinh de tang application  o may B co the hieu duoc. Dieu nay giong nhu khi ban viet mot chuong trinh  thi cac cau lenh phai tuan theo thu tu va cu phap nhat dinh thi chuong trinh  moi chay duoc. Tang application gui du lieu  xuong tang duoi theo dong byte noi byte. Cung voi du lieu, tang application  cung gui xuong cac thong tin  dieu khien khac giup xac dinh dia chi den, di cua du lieu.

Khi xuong toi tang TCP, dong du lieu  se duoc dong thanh cac goi co kich thuoc  khong nhat thiet bang nhau nhung phai nho hon 64 KB. Cau truc cua goi du lieu TCP gom mot phan header chua thong tin  dieu khien va sau do la du lieu. Sau khi dong goi xong o tang TCP, du lieu  duoc chuyen xuong cho tang IP.

Goi du lieu xuong toi tang IP se tiep tuc bi dong goi lai thanh cac goi du lieu IP nho hon sao cho co kich thuoc  phu hop voi mang chuyen mach goi ma no dung de truyen du lieu. Trong khi dong goi, IP cung chen them phan header cua no vao goi du lieu  roi chuyen xuong cho tang Datalink/Physical.

Khi cac goi du lieu  IP toi tang Datalink se duoc gan them mot header khac va chuyen toi tang physical di vao mang. Goi du lieu  luc nay goi la frame. Kich thuoc  cua mot frame  hoan toan phu thuoc vao mang ma may A ket noi.

Trong khi chu du tren mang Internet, frame  duoc cac router chi dan de co the toi dung dich can toi. Router thuc ra la mot module  chi co hai tang la Network va Datalink/Physical. Cac frame  toi router se duoc tang Datalink/Physical loc bo header ma tang nay them vao va chuyen len tang Network (IP). Tang IP dua vao cac thong tin  dieu khien trong header ma no them vao de quyet dinh duong di  tiep theo cho goi IP. Sau do goi IP nay lai duoc chuyen xuong tang Datalink/Physical de di vao mang. Qua trinh cu the tiep tuc cho den khi du lieu  toi dich la may B.

Khi toi may B cac goi du lieu  duoc xu ly theo quy trinh  nguoc lai voi may A. Theo chieu mui ten, dau tien du lieu  qua tang datalink/physical. Tai day frame bi bo di phan header va chuyen len tang IP. Tai tang IP, du lieu duoc bung goi IP, sau do len tang TCP va cuoi cung len tang application de hien thi ra man hinh.

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Updated: 04/03/2008 | Views: 1679 | Comments: 2

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By tran trung tri, IP: 123.24.*.*, 27/5/2009 09:25 GMT +0700
vo vin qua di mat

By tran thi thanh thuy, IP: 123.24.*.*, 4/11/2009 10:52 GMT +0700
to' phai? lam` bai` tap lon' ve` phan tich' va` thiet' ke' mang internet ban nao` biet' thi` giup' to' voi':(

Ban co y kien gi ve bai viet Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI) nay? Hay goi suy nghi, binh luan, danh gia, loi khuyen ... cua ban ve bai viet Nguyen ly hoat dong cua giao thuc TCP/IP va Internet (PhanI) ban tai day.

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