Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2).

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Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2)

Bai viet nay se tiep tuc gioi thieu cho cac ban giao thuc IPv6 bang cach thao luan ve viec dinh dang dia chi va cac loai dia chi khac nhau cua IPv6..

Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2) - Ban co dau.
Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2) - Ban khong dau.
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Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2).

Gioi thieu ve dia chi IPv6 (Phan 2).


Trong phan mot cua loat bai nay, chung toi  da gioi thieu  mot so cach khac nhau bieu dien  dia chi IPv6 so voi cach duoc su dung de bieu dien  trong IPv4. Trong bai viet nay, chung toi  muon tiep tuc thao luan  bang viec noi ve nhung van de ben trong dia chi IPv6, cach ma cac dia chi IPv6 duoc thiet lap cho mang cap duoi va cac loai IPv6 khac nhau.

Neu da quen voi IPv4 thi ban phai biet rang mot dia chi IPv4 gom co 4 phan, moi phan duoc phan biet voi nhau bang dau cham. Mot phan trong dia chi nay bieu thi so mang va cac bit con lai dung de phan biet mot host cu the tren mang. So cua cac bit thuc duoc thiet ke  cho so mang va so host khac nhau phu thuoc vao subnet mask.

Mot dia chi IPv4 duoc chia thanh cac phan khac nhau, trong dia chi IPv6 cung vay. Trong bai truoc, ban da biet duoc ve cac dia chi IPv6 co 128 bit chieu dai. Khi mot dia chi IPv6 duoc viet theo dang day du, no duoc dien ta thanh 8 phan khac nhau, moi phan co 4 so va duoc phan tach bang dau “:”. Moi phan co 4 chu so nay bieu thi 16 bit du lieu, moi truong 16 bit nay lai duoc su dung cho cac muc dich rieng biet.
Cu the, moi mot dia chi IPv6 duoc phan thanh ba phan khac nhau do la: site prefix, subnet ID, interface ID. Ba thanh phan nay duoc nhan dang boi vi tri cua cac bit ben trong mot dia chi. Ba truong dau tien trong IPv6 duoc bieu thi site prefix, truong tiep theo bieu thi subnet ID con 4 truong cuoi bieu thi cho interface ID.

Site prefix cung giong nhu so mang cua IPv4. No la so duoc gan den trang cua ban bang mot ISP. Dien hinh, tat ca cac may tinh  trong cung mot vi tri se duoc chia se  cung mot site prefix. Site prefix huong toi dung chung khi no nhan ra mang cua ban va cho phep mang co kha nang truy cap  tu Internet.

Khong giong nhu site prefix, subnet ID mang tinh rieng boi vi no o ben trong mang cua ban, subnet ID mieu ta cau truc trang cua mang. Subnet ID lam viec  rat giong voi cach ma mang con lam viec  trong giao thuc IPv4. Su khac nhau lon nhat o day la cac mang co do co the dai 16 byte la duoc bieu thi trong dinh dang  hex nhieu hon la ky hieu chu thap phan co nhieu dau cham. Mot IPv6 subnet dien hinh tuong duong voi mot nhanh mang don (trang) nhu mot subnet cua IPv4.

Interface ID lam viec  giong nhu mot ID cau hinh IPv4. So nay nhan dang duy nhat mot host rieng trong mang. Interface ID (thu ma doi khi duoc cho nhu la mot the) duoc cau hinh tu dong dien hinh dua vao dia chi MAC  cua giao dien  mang. ID giao dien  co the duoc cau hinh bang dinh dang  EUI-64.

De xem mot dia chi IPv6 duoc phan chia nhu the nao thanh cac phan con khac nhau cua no, ban hay quan sat den dia chi duoi day:

2001:0f68:0000:0000:0000:0000:1986:69af

Phan site prefix cua dia chi nay la: 2001:0f68:0000. Truong tiep theo la 0000 bieu thi subnet ID. Cac byte con lai (0000:0000:1986:69af) bieu thi interface ID.

Dien hinh khi mot tien to duoc bieu dien, no duoc viet trong mot dinh dang  dac biet. Cac so 0 trong do da giai thich trong bai viet truoc va cac tien to duoc theo sau boi mot dau so va so. So sau dau so chi so luong  cua cac bit trong tien to. Trong vi du truoc toi da de cap den site prefix cho dia chi 2001:0f68:0000:0000:0000:0000:1986:69af la 2001:0f68:0000. Khi tien to nay co chieu dai 48 bit thi chung ta nen them vao do a /48 de ket thuc no hop thuc. Voi cac con so 0 da bo, tien to do se viet nhu sau: 2001:f68::/48

Cac loai dia chi IPv6

IPv6 co ba loai dia chi khac nhau: Unicast, Multicast va Anycast.

Dia chi Unicast duoc su dung de phan biet cac host don le tren mot mang. Cac dia chi Multicast lai su dung de phan biet mot nhom cac giao dien  mang cu tru dien hinh trong cac may tinh  phuc hop. Khi mot goi du lieu  duoc gui den dia chi multicast thi goi do duoc gui den tat ca cac giao dien  mang trong nhom multicast.

Giong nhu cac dia chi multicast, cac dia chi anycast cung phan biet mot nhom cu the cac giao dien  mang thuong cu tru trong cac may tinh  phuc hop. Vay cai gi tao tuyen anycast khac voi mot nhom multicast? Khi cac goi duoc gui di den mot dia chi multicast chung duoc gui den tat ca cac giao dien  mang trong nhom. Trai nguoc voi dieu do, khi cac goi du lieu  duoc gui di den mot dia chi anycast thi cac goi nay khong gui den toan bo nhom ma thay vi do chung chi duoc gui den thanh vien  gan nhat ve mat vat ly voi nguoi gui.

Cac dia chi Unicast

Chung toi da gioi thieu  cho cac ban dinh dang  cua mot dia chi IPv6 va nhung vi tri bit khac nhau duoc su dung. Qua thuc co hai loai dia chi unicast khac nhau do la: toan cuc va lien ket cuc bo. Mot dia chi unicast toan cuc co the truy cap  rong rai trong khi do dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo chi co the truy cap  den cac may tinh  khac ma chia se  lien ket. Dinh dang dia chi IP  ma toi da gioi thieu  cho cac ban o phan truoc la mot dia chi unicast toan cuc. Chung toi  da noi ve loai dia chi nay boi vi no la loai dia chi chung nhat.

Cac dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo da su dung mot dinh dang  dia chi khac voi cac dia chi unicast toan cuc. Giong nhu cac dia chi unicast toan cuc, cac dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo cung gom 128 byte chieu dai. Su khac nhau o hai loai nay la cac byte duoc phan phoi khac nhau va dia chi su dung mot site prefix dac biet.

Trong mot dia chi unicast lien ket noi bo, mot site prefix chiem 10 bit dau tien cua dia chi thay vi 48 bit dau nhu trong truong hop cua dia chi unicast toan cuc. Site prefix duoc su dung bang mot dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo la: fe80.

Khi site prefix duoc viet ngan lai (so voi mot dia chi unicast toan cuc), ban co the khong ngac nhien  khi thay rang so luong  cua khong gian chi dinh trong subnet ID da duoc mo rong tu 16 bit thanh 64 bit. Nhung gi o day la 64 bit do khong thuc su duoc su dung. Nho rang mot dia chi IP  lien ket cuc bo chi hop le cho cac may tinh  dang chia se  mot lien ket chung. Nhu vay, khong co ly do  nao de can phai co mot subnet ID. 64 bit cua khong gian dia chi ma duoc danh rieng cho subnet ID duoc bieu dien  nhu nhung so 0.

Interface ID cho mot dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo co chieu dai 54 bit. Interface ID hau nhu luon duoc bat nguon tu 48 bit dia chi MAC  da gan vao card  giao dien  mang de giao thuc duoc phan danh gioi. Duoi day la mot vi du ve mot dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo.

Fe80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:23a1:b152

Tat nhien khi cac dia chi IPv6 duoc viet ra thi chung thuong duoc dien ta voi mot loat con so 0 da bi triet tieu. Chinh vi vay, mot cong thuc viet tat dung ky thuat  dia chi nay la:

Fe80::23a1:b152

Khi cac dia chi da dien ta voi cac so 0 da bi triet tieu, thi dia chi dau tien trong giong nhu bat ky dia chi IPv6 nao. Nho rang ban co the noi duoc su khac nhau giua mot dia chi unicast lien ket cuc bo voi cac dia chi khac boi vi mot dia chi unicast cuc bo se luon luon bat dau voi fe80.

Ket luan

Trong bai viet nay, chung toi  da trinh bay cho cac ban su khac nhau dang ke ve cac bit trong dia chi IPv6. Phan cuoi da di thang vao thao luan  su khac nhau giua cac loai dia chi IPv6. Trong phan 3 chung toi  se tiep tuc thao luan  bang viec noi ve cac dia chi multicast va anycast
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Updated: 05/05/2008 | Views: 186 | Comments: 0

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