Phong cach am nhac: Ban co dien la gi?.

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Phong cach am nhac: Ban co dien la gi?

Ban co dien la mot tu ngu thong dung hien nay trong lang am nhac, ben canh nhung R&B hay hip-hop thoi thuong. Khi ma nen am nhac dai chung Viet Nam chua co su phan dinh the loai ro rang, chi quanh quan cac khai niem mo ho “nhac sang”, “nhac sen”, “nhac tre”... thi co the coi “ban co dien” cung phe voi “nhac sang”, nhu co ca si tung tuyen bo nhac cua minh gio day da sang trong hon, boi trong hoa am co dung nhieu tieng piano va violin (!)..

Phong cach am nhac: Ban co dien la gi? - Ban co dau.
Phong cach am nhac: Ban co dien la gi? - Ban khong dau.
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Sarah Brightman, sieu sao cua dong classical crossover

Phong cach am nhac: Ban co dien la gi?.

Khong kho khan gi de ta nghe duoc, doc duoc dau do nhung loi khang dinh cua ca si, hay nhan dinh cua bao chi  ve album  nay, bai hat  kia la theo dong ban co dien, thuong duoc viet mot cach rat sai ve thuat ngu la semi-classic. Nhung cung chung tinh canh voi nhung dong nhac khac duoc du nhap mot cach voi va vao thi truong am nhac  Viet Nam, chua bao gio “ban co dien” duoc dinh nghia mot cach nghien tuc, de tu do cac ca si, nha san xuat co duoc nhung san pham  thuc su “ban co dien”.

Vay “ban co dien” la gi? Va khi mot ca si  hat nhac “ban co dien”, am nhac  vang len ra sao? Dieu ay khong phai nguoi trong cuoc nao, hay cac nha bao  sinh dung chu nao cung co the hieu can ke. Pham vi bai bao nay cung kho co the neu chi tiet duoc, chi xin dua nhung thong tin  can ban nhat ve dong nhac nay, von dang rat thinh hanh tren toan the gioi, nhung van con gay nhieu nham lan o Viet Nam, vi the moi co nhung vu kien  lam cam nhu hoi ong Cu Huy Ha Vu kien ca si  My Linh (chuyen se duoc noi tiep o phan sau).

Nhu da noi, “semi-classic” la mot tu sai, dung ra phai viet la semi-classical, duoc dich nghia dung la ban co dien. Semi-classical khong phai de chi rieng am nhac  ma con dinh voi nhieu linh vuc khac, tu nghe thuat toi khoa hoc  tu nhien, khoa hoc  xa hoi, rat rong khong the ke het. Gon lai trong pham vi mot thuat ngu am nhac, no duoc dung noi ve nhung tac pham  am nhac na na nhu nhac co dien, nhung khong phuc tap, co cau truc don gian va nhieu tinh dai chung, de nghe, de cam.

Dinh nghia nhu the han la khong day du lam so voi nhung gi van duoc goi la “ban co dien”. Va da tu lau, de chi “ban co dien”, trong am nhac  the gioi da co tu “classical crossover” - nhac co dien giao thoa. Day la thuat ngu duoc dung chinh thuc trong cac bang xep hang  am nhac, cac to bao am nhac  uy tin va ca tren ke dia cac he thong  ban CD lon tren the gioi. Nhac den classical crossover la nguoi ta nho ngay den nhung ngoi sao lon cua dong nay, nhu Sarah Brightman, Andrea Bocelli, Sissel, Josh Groban, Katherine Jenkins, Hayley Westenra, Russell Watson, Charlotte Church... doi khi nguoi ta cung xep ho vao danh sach nhac co dien (classical) nua, theo cach hieu rang do la kieu nhac co dien cua ngay hom nay.

Classical crossover duoc mo ta the nay: Mot so tac pham  am nhac co dien thuc su, dan tro thanh pho bien trong doi tuong khan gia  thuong nghe cac loai am nhac  dai chung, va theo do, chung duoc bien hoa, thay doi cho gan voi cac the loai dai chung kia. Co the ke so so ra Canon cua Johann Pachelbel (the ky 17), mot so ban concerto, giao thuong cua Mozart, vai bai hat  (lied) cua Schubert, Giao huong so 3 cua Henryk Gorecki (nhac si tieu bieu cua truong phai toi gian, the ky  20 - tac pham  nay nghe rat gan voi cac ban hoa tau new age thinh hanh sau nay)... con rat nhieu thi du khac.

Trong nganh ghi am, cu the la thi truong am nhac  co dien, khai niem “giao thoa” ban dau duoc dung de chi cac album  cua nhung nghe si  chuyen ve am nhac  co dien, nhu cac nghe si  doc tau, cac ca si  opera  trinh dien cac tac pham am nhac dai chung theo phong cach  co dien, tiep sau do, o phia nguoc lai, mot so nghe si  nhac pop, rock, jazz cung ghi am cac tac pham  co dien theo nhung phong cach  thien ve dai chung hon, tham chi sang tac cac tac pham  moi theo phong cach  co dien. Co the ke ra day ban Concerto cho Ban nhac va Dan nhac (Concerto for Group and Orchestra) cua ban nhac rock  lung danh Deep Purple duoc trinh dien va ghi am cuoi nhung nam 60 the ky  truoc.

Su pha tron van tiep dien, va ngay nay, classical crossover bao gom mot thi phan am nhac  rat lon voi nhieu phong cach  khac nhau, cac nghe si dai chung va co dien cung ket hop voi nhau rat thuong xuyen. Nguoi ta thay cac ban nhac rock  nhu Metallica, Scorpions, Manowar trinh dien voi cac dan nhac giao huong va hop xuong do so theo hinh thuc va quy mo cac buoi hoa nhac co dien. Sap toi day, tai Viet Nam, lan dau tien co mot buoi hoa nhac nhu the, voi su ket hop cua ban nhac rock  Unlimited va Dan nhac giao huong cua Nhac vien TP.HCM. Pho bien hon, voi su co mat cua cac ca si  vua ke ten o phan tren, cong chung duoc nghe mot thu am nhac co dien moi - vua la su pha tron nhac pop va nhac co dien, vua la nhung tac pham  moi tinh theo kieu co dien, cau ky hon kieu giao thoa, dong nay duoc goi la neo-classical (tan co dien) - ma mot dai dien tieu bieu hien nay la ca si  giong tenor nguoi Y Alessandro Safina dang noi nhu con.

Nhu vay, ban co dien thuc ra phuc tap hon nhieu nhung gi van duoc noi mot cach don gian o Viet Nam  la “semiclassic”. Va “vu kien lam cam” duoc nhac o phan dau bai viet nay, la cai co de nhac toi hinh thuc “ban co dien” rat thinh hanh tren toan the gioi, nhung lai de gay hieu lam o Viet Nam, do la viec lay cac tac pham  am nhac co dien ra de “cai bien” lai, tu bien cac ban romance, aria thanh ca khuc, toi viet loi cho cac tac pham nhac khong loi... Chi xin ke ra day vai truong hop la cac bai hat kha quen thuoc voi nguoi nghe o Viet Nam: Lara Fabian viet loi cho ban Adagio cua Albinoni (ban nay con co mot phan loi khac do Sarah Brightman hat ten la Anytime, Anywhere, trong album  Eden), bai rap boc lua Prince Igor cua Warren G. va nu ca si  giong nu cao nguoi Na Uy Sissel co phan chinh lay tu mot doan giai dieu trong vo opera  Prince Igor cua Borodin. Doan nhac nay rat noi tieng, tung duoc lay de viet thanh mot ca khuc  ten la Stranger In Paradise, dua vao mot vo nhac kich Broadway la Kismet, ban than  bai hat  la mot “hit” lon tren the gioi, va ca si  My Linh co dua khuc nhac nay vao album Chat voi Mozart duoi “hinh thuc” bai hat  Som nay mua Xuan, bai Attesa ma Sarah Brightman hat trong album  moi nhat Symphony, cung chung goc voi bai Sancta Maria ma Katherine Jenkins va Sissel hat, la mot doan nhac trong vo opera  Cavaleria Rusticana.

Bai hat “pho thong” dau tien duoc ghi nhan chuyen the tu nhac co dien va tro thanh “hit” la I’m Always Chasing Rainbows cua Joseph McCarthy va Harry Carroll sang tac nam 1918, dua tren tac pham  Fantasie Impromptu cung Do thang thu cua Chopin. Con co the ke ra rat nhieu cac thi du tuong tu, la ca khuc  khai thac tu cac tac pham  co dien, ma thuat ngu ban quyen goi la “public domain”- “pham vi pho bien dung chung”. Dieu nay la binh thuong, o ca cac quoc gia  co luat phap ve ban quyen  rat nghiem ngat, chu khong phai la hien tuong ca biet nhu hoi vu kien  am i ong luat su no da (chac la vi mat binh tinh) quy ket la “cac nha quan ly o nhung nuoc do an hoi lo” (!)

Cuoi cung, tro lai voi nhung gi van duoc goi la “ban co dien” o Viet Nam, nhung gi ma cac ca si  duoc cho rang theo dong ban co dien, nhu Duc Tuan, Khanh Linh dang lam van chi la hinh thuc mo phong tuong doi kieu classical crossover. Ho dung it nhieu cac phong cach  bieu dien  co dien, tu cach hat, toi soan hoa am, cho cac bai hat  Viet Nam co the mang trong do chut sac thai nhac co dien, nhu Duc Tuan dang lam voi cac album nhac Van Cao va Pham Duy, va Khanh Linh da hat trong cac album cua co truoc gio. Moi thu moi chi dung lai o do, don gian nhu cach moi nguoi van noi ve “ban co dien” nhe tenh, ma it co thoi gian  de y rang no cung kha... rac roi va cung menh mong dang ke.  
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TT&VH

Updated: 28/07/2008 | Views: 26 | Comments: 0

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