Dong vat an thit lon dang bien mat.

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Dong vat an thit lon dang bien mat

Su bien mat nhanh chong cua cac loai an thit hang dau nhu cho
soi, bao cuga, su tu hay ca map da lam cho so luong loai an thit trung
gian tang len dang ke, dieu nay da dan toi su bat on trong he sinh thai
moi truong va kinh te, theo mot nghien cuu gan day nhan xet..

Dong vat an thit lon dang bien mat - Ban co dau.
Dong vat an thit lon dang bien mat - Ban khong dau.
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Dong vat an thit lon dang bien mat.

Nhung phat hien moi duoc xuat ban tren to Khoa hoc  sinh hoc ngay 1/10 vua qua da cho thay tat ca cac loai an thit lon nhat tai vung Bac My dang bien mat mot cach nhanh chong trong suot 20 nam qua trong khi mot loat cac loai an thit trung gian khac den 60% dang phat trien  sinh soi. Van de nay dang tro thanh van de toan cau, dang ngay cang nghiem trong ma chua nhin thay giai phap nao huu hieu truoc mat.

Vi du, tai cac vung tren sa mac Saharan Chau Phi, cac loai su tu va bao dang giam di va xuat hien thay the boi cac cac loai an thit trung gian nhu khi dau cho. O mot so noi tre em  phai o nha thay vi den truong de bao ve vuon nha khoi nhung con khi dau cho toi pha hoai mua mang.

Ong William  Ripple – giao su chuyen nganh  he thong  xa hoi  va sinh thai hoc rung tai truong dai hoc  Oregon State da phat bieu: “Van de nay rat phuc tap, va co rat nhieu he qua ma kho co the biet duoc. Tuy nhien co cac bang chung ve su bung no dan so  cua cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian gay anh huong xau tro lai toi kinh te  va sinh thai hoc.”

Tung truong hop tren the gioi, cac nha nghien cuu  da noi rang, cac loai dong vat an thit chinh nhu cho soi, su tu hay ca map deu dang giam di ve so luong  mot cach dang lo ngai hoac la co muc dich hoac la do cac anh huong cua moi truong  song, san ban hay danh bat ca. Rat nhieu lan da phat hien ra boi con nguoi, cac lan tan cong  rat kinh hoang, su bien mat cua cac dan thu nuoi hoac cac moi quan tam  khac. Tuy nhien mot buc tranh moi dang noi len lai la mot loat cac van de, bao gom su roi loan trong nen kinh te  va he sinh thai co the gay ra cac van de khac ma nguyen can sau xa lai chinh tu cac loai dong vat an thit chinh nay.

Ong Clinton Epps, pho giao su tai truong OSU dang nghien cuu  ve cac moi lien quan tuong tac giua con nguoi  va the gioi  dong vat hoang ra da noi “Toi da lam rat nhieu cac cong viec  lien quan den dong vat hoang ra tai Chau Phi va moi nguoi o moi noi deu hoi cung mot cau hoi  giong nhau, Chung ta dang lam gi?”. “Hau het moi nguoi deu hieu rang cac van de nay deu rat phuc tap, khong don gian nhu viec thoat khoi cac con cho soi hay su tu va nghi ban da giai quyet xong van de. Chung toi  phai rat can than khi noi ve viec dua cai gi xuat hien tiep theo thi se la giai phap de dang.”

Su bien mat cac loai an thit lon va chinh nay dang gay ra su bung no trong loai an thit trung gian hang hai tren the gioi, theo mot nghien cuu  gan day. Trong hinh anh  nay, su tiet chung cua loai soi lai la dieu kien de loai soi dong co phat trien sinh soi, cung nhu the loai meo hoang bien mat lai lam cho cac loai gam nham phat trien. Cac nha khoa hoc  cho rang, quy luat nay la tat nhien tuy nhien no lai dang gay ra mot su roi loan trong he sinh thai tren toan the gioi.

Su bien mat cua cho soi lai la niem vui cua cac chu trai nuoi gia suc, vi du nhu ho so soi se tan cong  dan gia suc cua ho. Tuy nhien, dieu nay lai dan den viec gia tang so luong  soi dong co., mot loai an thit trung gian truoc day duoc chan boi soi. Cac con cho soi dong co nay tan cong  cac con cuu nuoi va cac loai linh duong va co gang  de kiem soat chung de sao cho chung co gia tri  dat nhat, tri gia hang tram trieu do la. “ Su anh huong ve kinh te  cua cac loai an thit trung gian da duoc mong doi de thuc day cac loai an thit hang dau len va co su ho tro tuong tu hoac co doi khang moi voi con nguoi. Cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian moi xuat hien voi mat do day hon cac loai an thit hang nhat va the hien kha nang lon hon trong viec kiem soat cac anh huong.” Theo danh gia tu cac nha khoa hoc  viet lai trong bao cao cua ho.

Cac van de dat ra khong duoc neu ro gioi han trong he sinh thai.
Ca map, vi du, co su giam xuong ve so luong  la lon nhat do viec san bat ca tran lan. O mot so noi bung no dan so  loai ca duoi gay ra su sup do can bang cac loai ca trong vinh va su mat mat ve kinh te  va sinh hoc.

Trong so cac phat hien cua nghien cuu:

• . Cac loai an thit hang nhat va chinh co the bao ve dan so  cac con moi bang cach tieu diet cac con vat an moi nho hon va chinh viec khong quan tam co che nay da gay ra su sup do cua toan bo he sinh thai

• Cac anh huong xau dan den viec gia tang dan so  loai dong vat an thit trung gian hien da co tai lieu  luu ve cac loai chim, rua bien, than lan, cac loai gam nham, tho, ca, con trung, so bien va cac loai co mong guoc.

• Chi phi de kiem soat duoc cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian co the rat cao, va doi khi co the dat duoc hieu qua hon voi chi phi thap hon bang cach tra cac loai dong vat an thit lon ve voi he sinh thai

• Su can thiep cua con nguoi  co the khong de dang thay the duoc vai tro cua cac loai dong vat an thit hang nhat, mot phan do noi lo lang  ve su thay the khong chi o dan so  ma con ca hanh vi phan ung cua cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian nay.

• Cac loai dong vat an thit lon co the la loai an thit tuy nhien cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian thuong lai la dong vat an tap va co the gay ra hau qua toi mua mang va cay coi.

• Anh huong cua viec bung no dan so loai dong vat an thit trung gian co the duoc phat hien o bien, song suoi va rung va cac dong co tren the gioi.

• Viec ngan chan su ra doi cua cac loai dong vat an thit trung gian dang tro nen het suc kho khan va ton kem khi cac loai an thit hang dau dang dan bi xoa sach

“Van de nay khong the co duoc giai phap don gian. Toi vua moi doc thay rang khi Gen, George  Armstrong custer toi Lo den nam 1874, ong da chu y thay dan so  hiem hoi cua cho soi dong va su du thua cua cho soi, Bay gio cho soi dang bien mat va soi dong lai dang hoanh hanh va giet chet hang nghin con cuu tren toan the gioi.” ong Ripple noi.

“Chung toi dang moi chi bat dau de danh gia  ve su anh huong cua viec bien mat cac loai an thit hang dau nay. Tai OSU, ong Ripple va dong nghiep Robert  Beschta da co nghien cuu  mo rong va cac bai bao ve anh huong ma su bien mat cua cac dong vat an thit nhu cho soi va bao cuga gay ra cho he sinh thai, khong chi tao dieu kien cho hang loat cac dong vat an co nhu hieu nai phat trien ma cung lam bien mat noi so hai ve su thay doi cac hoat dong  sinh hoat cua cac loai dong vat nay. Chung da duoc luu lai trong lan kham pha ra he sinh thai tai Cong vien  Quoc gia Yellowstone sau khi cho soi duoc gioi thieu  tro lai o day."

Cac nha cong tac vien trong nghien cuu  nay bao gom cac nghien cuu  vien tu truong OSU, dai hoc  California tai Dai hoc  bang Berkeley va New Mexico tai Las Cruces. Chuong trinh  nay duoc tai tro boi khoa Nong nghiep va Nen tang Khoa hoc  quoc gia.

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Updated: 06/10/2009 | Views: 25 | Comments: 0

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